Name origin

Orchids rightly belong to the most beautiful flowers in the world.

Orchids owe their name to the naturalist and philosopher Theophrastus of Lesbos.

In his detailed botanical encyclopedia Historia plantarum, he described the orchid as a plant with testicle-shaped root tubers.

As a result, the orchid first acquired the Greek name Orchis (testis) and later the common plant name orchid.

The botanical name of the “queen of flowers” is Orchidaceae.


Appearance and leaf

There are some specific features that are found in most Orchids.

These include, for example, the distinctive column that each orchid forms.

Also, the pollen grains of the Orchidaceae that combine to form a sticky mass of pollen.

The leaves of the orchids have distinctive leaf veins that have barely discernible transverse lines.

Furthermore, they form tiny seeds that usually do not germinate without symbiotic fungi.

The growth of the leaves is usually in two rows, opposite to the sides or each alternating with the shoot.

However, there are also some orchids that produce only a single leaf.

The shape of the leaves varies from circular, ovate, kidney-shaped, elliptic, oblong, inverted ovate to spear-shaped.

Inflorescence and flower

The inflorescences of the orchid family have both racemose and paniculate shoots and single-flowered shoots.

Depending on the genus, the most common, racemose flower shoots are composed of more than 100 individual flowers.

In addition to the different flower shapes, there is also a precise description of where the individual inflorescences arise.

A distinction is made between the terminal shoot tip, the lateral and the central point at the base of the shoot.

The flowers of the orchid impress like no other plant species with an incredible variety of flower shapes and colors.

Depending on the variety, the flower sizes range from a few millimeters to 20 centimeters.

An extensive color palette of flowers, in shades of pink, white, red, yellow, purple, green and even variegated specimens complete the impressive appearance of Orchidaceae.

orchid fruit


Almost all orchidaceae form so-called capsule fruits.

Depending on the genus, the individual capsules differ significantly in shape, size, surface and even color.

Some fruits show rather thicker walls in cross-section, other species are thinner-walled.

Shapes range from round fruits with multiple ribs to triangular formations.

The surface structures also show strong differences depending on the species and show

a spiny, sometimes hairy or warty appearance.

The fruit development of the orchid takes place in the bud stage.

Whereby the fruits are formed from the already formed ovary of the flower.

The fruit accounts have three carpels and light green thickenings, which are located at the bottom of the flower.

Maturation of the nodes occurs as soon as the orchidaceae withers.

When ripening sets in, the fruit bursts open, causing the dry seeds to spread widely through the resulting longitudinal clefts.

Occurrence and distribution

Orchids can be found all over the world, with the exception of Antarctica.

Even above the Arctic Circle, in offshore islands of the South Pole and also in Patagonia there are some specimens of the Orchidaceae to discover.

Europe is home to about 250 different orchid species.

However, the original distribution area of the orchids is in the tropical regions, more precisely in the tropics and subtropics.

About 300 to 350 species are found in Central and South America and the Caribbean islands.

This is followed by tropical Asia with about 250 to 300 species and tropical Africa with an estimated 125 to 150 different specimens.

Oceania has about 50 to 70 genera and Eurasia counts 40 to 60 species.

North America has about 20 to 30 species.

orchids and butterflies


Orchids are excellent for use as decorative plants and for greenery in the home.

But the orchid convinces not only by its beauty.

In addition to its use as a houseplant, the orchid has been used since ancient times as a medicine and stimulant.

It is also used as a perfume, medicine, tea, spice or tobacco substitute.

The Mexican Indian tribe of the Tarahumara, for example, used the leaves of the genus Trichocentrum cebolleta.

The hallucinogen contained in the yellow-brown, spotted petals was used as an intoxicant.

The orchid is also found in homeopathy.

Here the lady’s slipper serves as a proven remedy for sleepless nights and nervous restlessness.

In Arab countries, especially in Turkey, “Salep”, a sweet milk drink made from the flour of the orchid “Orchis morio” is very popular.

The powder of ground orchids is also used for an ice cream called “Maraş ice cream”.

Nowadays, due to the international conservation of orchid plants, the production of these products is made from substitutes.

Among the most famous orchid species is definitely vanilla, with the botanical name Vanilla.

The genus Vanilla planifolia has one of the most important aromas in the world and is mainly used in the food industry.

For the production of perfume or tobacco, the variety Vanilla planisolia is used.

Superstition and interesting facts

Orchid plants have exerted an enormous attraction on mankind for more than 2500 years.

They are used not only as a remedy or for decorative purposes, but also as an aphrodisiac.

They were also used in superstition.

Already the Aztecs paid homage to certain orchid genera as sacred plants and used motifs of the Orchidaceae for their temples.

In Greece, naturalists and poets dedicated detailed treatises to the orchid.

And also in China, the philosopher Confucius was concerned with the purity, beauty and grace of orchidaceae.



Hydrangeas – popular ornamental shrubs

Hydrangeas (Hydrangea) belong to the hydrangea family (Hydrangeaceae). Hydrangeas are popular ornamental shrubs in the garden. The best known in Central Europe is the garden hydrangea.

What is their appearance like?

The most striking feature of their inflorescences are the barren show flowers with their white or colored sepals, which stand at the edge of the inflorescence. In garden hydrangea, all flowers have enlarged and barren sepals.

The different species are plants that appear to be a bit woody. These include: Shrubs, semi-shrubs, lianas or small trees. Hydrangeas differ into deciduous and evergreen species. Even the hairiness can be different in the shrubs.


There are species with a large leaf blade, serrated at the edge, but also some with pinnately cleft or smooth leaf margin. There are no stipules.

The flowers, short stalked are hermaphroditic and small. In many species the sterile flowers have two to five and in others four corolla-like enlarged whitish or purple to reddish sepals. The short flowers, on the other hand, are quite inconspicuous. These have four to five sepal tips and smaller hooded four to five rare or freely fused petals. In many of the garden forms, the fertile flowers are absent. Here there are usually ten more or fewer stamens.

Flower and inflorescence

The best known are panicle hydrangeas (Hydrangea paniculata) and the farmers’ hydrangeas (Hydrangea macrophylla), as well as climbing hydrangeas (Hydrangea petiolaris). Farmer’s hydrangea hybrids are plate hydrangeas with flattened flower heads and fertile flowers surrounded by sterile larger flowers. In the garden hydrangea, they are spherical flower heads with sterile single flowers. In Japan, for example, the species of farmer’s hydrangea (Hydrangea macrophylla) has been an important garden plant for some time.

As a potted plant or in the garden, the farmer’s hydrangea is popular for its decorative inflorescences, combined with a long flowering period. Depending on the variety, the flower colors vary from white – blue -and pink. Especially interesting are the varieties with a dark flower stalk. On the bush the flowers remain until autumn.

flower of hydrangea

In any case, the flowers of hydrangea attract attention in the garden. Hardly any perennial in the garden with large balls of flowers in purple – blue – pink – red or white impresses more with such a blaze of color.

Wild species of hydrangea form pink, white or blue false flowers at the end of their shoots to attract insects. Inside the plant are the inconspicuous and fertile flowers, which to a layman at first glance is hardly recognizable as a flower.

The fruit is popular not only among garden lovers

Peasant hydrangea (Hydranga macrophylla) enjoys great popularity. The reason for this is not only the splendor of colors, but its intoxicating effect. This has little to do with the beauty of the plant, but rather the garden hydrangea is said to act similar to marijuana. At least that’s what the plant is said to do.

It is not only the hydrangea, also other plants like: Henbane – Angel’s trumpet and Datura are said to have an intoxicating effect. The plants are used as organic or natural drugs. On the Internet you can find many tips on how to achieve an optimal intoxicating effect with these plants. Consumers are very positive about the fact that the plants do not fall under the Narcotics Act. Thus, hydrangea is also a plant that enhances intoxication, and on top of that, it is legal.

Where do hydrangeas grow?

Mainly hydrangeas are found in less to warm temperate areas in East Asia. Only a few species come from North and South America, Southeast Asia and the Azores. In China, there are 33 hydrangea species and 25 of them are found only in China. Most hydrangea plants grow in forests as understory. In domestic Europe, hydrangeas decorate many gardens and flower banks. The approximately 80 to 90 species feel most at home in the forests of East Asia, North and South America.

blue hydrangea

Where are hydrangeas used?

Due to the extensive varieties and cultivars hydrangea forms large flower heads. Such a wide variety of flowers on a climbing plant, which, after all, can grow to a height of 80-90 cm, makes the hydrangea an absolute garden highlight and, therefore, the favorite of all garden lovers. Nowadays hydrangeas are among the most popular balcony and garden plants. They are easy to care for, persistent and versatile. If the location is right, the hydrangea will outlive any garden friend.

As a woodland plant, they prefer a location in partial shade. However, they do well in sunny places, but then need more moisture.




The rose, as the name suggests, belongs to the rose family. Its scientific name is Rosaceae. The plant genus is called Rosa.


There are usually 5 leaves per stem. They look elongated and some also have hairs at the leaf ends. The leaf margin is regular or irregularly shaped. Again, it depends on the variety of cultivation. On the stem are thorns, which are attached in a wedge shape.

pink roses

Inflorescence and Bloom

Through various breeding, there are now 250 different types of roses in very many colors. From white to black, there are all colors. Even bicolor rose flowers or in bright rainbow colors they were bred. The flower envelope is filled to different degrees, depending on the type of rose. The flowers emit a pleasant fragrance.



The rosehip belongs to the wild rose family and. It is a fruit of the hazelnut family. It comes from the dog rose (Rosa canina). The ripe fruits are orange to red, rarely brown to black. The fruits are 3 to 6 mm long and rich in vitamin C. So it is not surprising that they are very popular as tea or jam, since they increase the body’s defenses. Not only do they help with colds, they also have a tonic and diuretic effect on bladder and kidney ailments. Not they also help with gout and rheumatism. From the seeds of the rosehip is obtained rosehip oil, which helpfully cares for sensitive skin.

orange roses


Roses are found everywhere in Europe. Already in ancient times they existed in Greece. Most roses, which are sold in Germany, come from the Netherlands.


Mainly roses are seen as decoration. But the flowers of roses are also popular for weddings as a way for the newlyweds or thrown into the grave at funerals as a sign of love for the deceased. Dried rose petals are also available as tea. Here they help with inflammation of the throat and pharynx or problems in the gastrointestinal tract due to their tannins.

wedding roses


The colors of the petals stand for different meanings. Red stands for love and is often given as a gift by lovers. White stands for purity and is often found in bridal bouquets. Pink stands for unobtrusive love. Orange stands for happiness and contentment. Black roses are given at funerals as a sign of mourning. Light blue, dyed roses and pink roses are also often given as gifts for births of the respective sex, much to the delight of the happy parents. Roses are also very popular for this reason. On the one hand, they look beautiful, noble and charming. On the other hand, they are very well suited to express through the appropriate color what some find difficult. Be it because of a bereavement, or because of infatuation.




The Latin derivation of the genus name is astrum, which means star, heavenly body, and refers to the ray-shaped arrangement of the ray or ray florets.


There is a huge number of species of asters (more than 150). They differ greatly in appearance. Some species can reach two meters and more, others reach a maximum height of growth of a few centimeters. The leaves are either alternate along the stem or are herbaceous, rosette-like, attached to the ground in smaller specimens. The foliage leaves are consistently oblong, bulbous oval, and pointed.

aster bloom

Inflorescence and Bloom

The flower of the aster, which is also called a star flower because of its appearance, is composed of two different petals. In the center there are yellow colored relatively small tubular flowers. Each species of asters has them. Around these tubular flowers are arranged much longer ray florets. These can appear in the most different colors, from white over pink, into the red shades up to purple and blue. In special cultivations brought about by us humans, the inner tubular flowers can also have a reddish hue.


Asters form ovaries. In these the ovules are formed. These are usually surrounded by a pappus, a heavily hairy down.

aster fruit


As with the external appearance, there are differences in the occurrence of the various species. Asters which bloom in spring or rather in autumn need a lot of sun. In contrast, asters that bloom in summer can also grow well in shady places in partial shade. Especially the larger species are susceptible to wilting. Thus, in open areas with a lot of wind, you will find rather small representatives of this species. Some asters require sufficient distance from other plants, while others grow in small colonies. The species of asters is also very flexible with regard to the abundance of nutrients in the soil. Depending on the species, the plants prefer nutrient-poor or nutrient-rich soils.


Asters are believed to have healing properties. In traditional medicine, they are often found as medicinal herbs. In modern medicine, however, they play no role. However, some species are quite edible and complement many a salad. The most common use or application is, of course, the beautification of the garden and room. Asters are very colorful and, as already described, they come in a wide variety of farms and sizes. Thus, there is something for every taste. They are also very popular as cut flowers, as they can survive for a relatively long time in vases with sufficient water.

garden with butterfly and asters


Asters are often affected by powdery mildew or the so-called aster wilt. A simple home remedy for powdery mildew is milk. Simply spray this over the plants and the pest will pass away. If individual plants are affected by aster wilt, the only remedy is to dispose of the plant, including the root ball, to prevent it from spreading among itself.




Tulipa is the scientific name of the tulip. It belongs to the lily family. Its name comes from the Turkish “tülbend” or Persian “delband”: in Persian means something like beloved or beloved.


Tulips are herbaceous plants and reach a growth height between 10 cm and 70 cm. In spring, the tulip sprouts from a bulb, blooms until summer and then withers. The bulb remains in the ground and the next spring the flowering begins again.
The tulip bulb is 3 to 10 cm tall and usually hairy on the outer surface. The bulb dies after flowering, but at the same time develops a flowering new bulb scale that can produce another flower the next year.
The tulip’s foliage leaves are green, lance-shaped and 10 to 30 cm long. They contain a lot of water. The stem leaves are arranged alternately, usually there are two to six stem leaves that a tulip forms.

tulip field

Inflorescence and bloom

There are very many cultivars of the tulip and thus quite different colors of flowers. From white, yellow blue to red everything is available, some tulips also grow multicolored, for example, they have striped petals of different colors. The colors of the tulip are pastel or intense. The petals stand upright. Initially, they are closed, which creates the classic image of a tulip. In the vase, or even in the wild, the leaves open after a few days, ultimately the petals fall off. The flowers stand upright, bracts are almost non-existent. Sometimes the stamens in the flower are hairy.


The fruit is a leathery, three-lobed, three-chambered capsule fruit. The seeds are mostly flat.

tulip fruit


The plant is now found all over the world as it has become a popular consumer item. Even at airports you can buy the bulbs. Originally the distribution area of the tulips was in North Africa, Europe, as well as Central Asia. They were gladly planted and cultivated centuries ago in the Mediterranean and Caucasus regions.


The tulip is one of the most popular cut flowers. Especially in spring it delights the hearts of people, it is a messenger of spring. But now the tulip is available all year round. Large tulip fields in Holland, but also in other countries provide year-round production. The cut flowers are also often used at funerals as coffin decorations. They have a friendly appearance and thus provide comfort for a less than pleasant event.
The second use of the tulip is as a living ornamental plant in gardens, parks and cultivated beds. Numerous species offer a diverse repertoire of possibilities here.

tulip for gift


A very famous term is the tulip bladder. Tulip mania (also called tulip mania, tulip fever or tulip hysteria) is a period in the Golden Age of Holland, when bulbs of tulips became a real object of speculation. Tulips were seen like an object: it was a coveted object of love at the end of the 16th century. In the upper middle classes, the aristocracy and among scholars they were planted in the gardens, a lively barter trade took place. Prices rose exorbitantly until 1637, when the market suddenly collapsed. The tulip hysteria is considered the first speculative bubble in economic history. The rapid fall in prices meant the ruin of many speculators.



Daisy, everyone knows it and you can find it almost everywhere. What many do not know, the pretty and delicate flower is a medicinal plant, which can be used for many ailments.


Among botanists and biologists, daisies are known by the Latin name Bellis perennis. The name is derived from bellus, which means beautiful or pretty. The epithet perennis means perennial or perennial and expresses that the plant blooms almost all year round.

The English Daisy was commonly known as “Mary’s Rose”. It is also known as bone flower.

meadow with daisies


Daisies are usually between 4 and 15 cm high. The leaves have a rich green color and have a length of up to 4 cm and a maximum width of 2 cm. They have an oval, elongated shape and are arranged as a basal rosette. In addition, the leaves grow upright in height. The stem is usually not hairy and leafless.

Inflorescence and bloom

Daisies belong to the daisy family and its flowering period lasts from March to November. The 4 to 10 cm long flower ending at the upright stem is probably the most striking feature of the flower. The flower consists of white to light pink petals arranged in a circle and in a single layer around the yellow center. The white petals are so-called female ray florets. The rich yellow center of the flower, in turn, consists of about 100 individual funnel flowers (also called tubular flowers).

Another special feature of Daisies is that they always adjust their flower heads according to the position of the sun. When it rains or at night, it closes its flower. This property is called “heliotrope” in plants.

Fruit of a daisy


Daisies develop closed fruits from the ovary, which are called achenes in the composite plants. The fruit and seed pods are fused together. They are self-pollinators and the wide distribution of the plant is due to the fact that their seeds are spread both by natural means, such as wind or precipitation, and by humans and animals.


Originally, daisies come from the Mediterranean region. From there it has spread across Central Europe to Northern Europe. However, humans have also introduced it to North and South America, Madeira and New Zealand. In addition, it is now also found in Australia, Hawaii and the Azores.

Due to the fact that the daisy has only few requirements regarding location and soil, the dainty flower can be found almost everywhere. Whether in pastures, parks, gardens, overgrown railroad embankments or on sidewalks, there is hardly a place where the plant does not feel at home.


The use of daisies is diverse. Occasionally it is used as a fodder plant. But mainly it is used as food and as a medicinal plant.

Food: You can actually eat everything from the daisy. The leaves, the closed flower buds and the opened flower heads. The taste of the flower buds is slightly nutty, while the opened flowers taste slightly bitter and the leaves have a sour taste. Even if one knows the daisy mainly in the salad, with the use are actually no limits. Whether as herb butter, in cream cheese, in jellies, as pesto or for decorating cakes, you can integrate the little flower almost in every dish.

Medicinal herb: The flowers contain saponins, tannins, bitter substances, essential oils and flavonoids. These ingredients have antibacterial, antifungal (against fungi) lipid-lowering, cholesterol-lowering, antioxidant and hemostatic effects. Thus, folk medicine uses the plant for skin diseases, painful and absent menstruation, headaches, dizzy spells, insomnia and to relieve coughs.


Illustrations: In the third millennium, royal tombs in Ur contained a golden headdress decorated with daisies.

young woman with daisy in mouth

Daisies also gained unprecedented fame in the 15th century, when the French King Louis IX included them in his coat of arms along with the lily.

Superstition: Since daisies are one of the first messengers of spring, it is said that if you eat the first three daisies in spring, you will be spared from toothache, fever and eye problems for the rest of the year. Another superstition says that if you pick a little flower on St. John’s Day at noon between 12 and 1 p.m. and then always carry it with you in its dried state, no work would go wrong.